"Moshiach is ready to come now-our part is to increase in acts of goodness and kindness" -The Rebbe

Wednesday, January 28, 2009

College Corrupts the Soul

College Corrupts the Soul

Rabbi Y. Oliver

The Rebbe’s vehement opposition to studying in secular colleges is well-known, but deserves to be publicized further.

Here are two translations I made of statements of the Rebbe on this topic. To sum up, the two main reasons that the Rebbe says that it is prohibited are exposure to an environment of loose morals and of heretical ideas. (See here, where the Rebbe encourages those who set up Touro College as a substitute for secular colleges.)
Learning in college is not merely a matter of learning facts. It means to be exposed to certain circles and activities that are antithetical to the values and faith of the believer. It would be like taking someone from a warm environment and casting him into cold water—“shock treatment”—several times a day. How long would he be able to survive?

In addition to this, the studies in university are set up to be at an age in which one’s personality is not yet sufficiently developed, usually before the age of thirty, and the exposure [to negative influences] then is more dangerous.

From a private audience with the Rebbe in 5715 (1955),
printed in Dem Rebben’s Kinder p. 211.

It must be pointed out—although in fact it should be self-evident—that all the above is completely unrelated to the issue of learning in college, university, or the like, where the prohibition is severe, and the danger great—and it is known that exposing oneself to danger is even worse than violating a prohibition. The entire atmosphere and weltanschauung of the environment in these institutions nowadays is permeated with the denial of Divine Providence, the notion that no entity or force can interfere with natural law, so much so that this is accepted as axiomatic and thus not even requiring proof, and as the foundation of all the studies, which need not even be explicitly mentioned.

In most of these institutions heresy and idolatrous religions are studied,[1]
and so on.

In the vast majority of these institutions there are no boundaries of shame and modesty, to the extent that they belittle and mock those who maintain such boundaries. On the contrary, the more immoral one is, the more highly he is regarded.

The appalling situation in the campuses, dormitories, promenades,
and so on, is infamous. One should not elaborate concerning shocking phenomena in general, and certainly not when it has reached the awful extent that it has in this case.

As for the famous claim that he or she will not be harmed and will overcome the test, and so on, the simple answer to this is also well-known: Even a perfectly righteous person, on the last day of his one-hundred-and-twentieth year on the earth [i.e., immediately before his passing], begins his day, before all his other prayers, by pleading before G–d: “Do not bring us to a test.”[2] This matter deserves further elaboration...

Likkutei Sichos
, Vol. 15, pp. 43-44.

[1] See Mishneh Torah, Laws of Idolatry, 2:2, “G–d commanded us not to read ... and not to think ... so that we not come to ask concerning the method of worshiping it ... ” See there further, and ibid. 2:3.

[2] In the morning blessings (
Berachos 60b). Cf. Sanhedrin 107a.

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Yes, Times Have Changed

Yes, Times Have Changed

Rabbi Y. Oliver

“Times have changed,” some people say. And they use this claim—some more subtly, and others more blatantly—to excuse all sorts of neglect and failure, repeating ad nauseam with the catch-cry of “times have changed.”

Yes, it’s true. “Times have changed.” However, in fact this is a reason for us to strive even more diligently in our mission:

Yes, “times have changed.” We are closer to
Moshiach than ever before. This requires that we intensify our preparations all the more.

Yes, “times have changed.” In many respects, the darkness of the exile has worsened (especially since the Rebbe was hidden from us on
Gimmel Tammuz), requiring us to shed light all the more.

Yes, “times have changed.” We have access to an incomparably greater amount of
Chassidus than ever before, obligating us to strive all the more to study it, meditate upon it, and apply it to ourselves.

Yes, “times have changed.” Modern communication enables us to disseminate
Yiddishkeit, Chassidus, and the Noahide laws on an incomparably wider scale than ever before, making us all the more responsible to use these tools for holiness.

Yes, “times have changed.” Before Gimmel Tammuz, a chossid could have thought that he could tell the Rebbe what he wanted to tell and hide what he wanted to hide, but now he knows that since the Rebbe has transcended the limitations of a physical body, one can hide nothing from him (see here).

Yes, “times have changed.” Before 28
Nissan 5751 we could still talk ourselves into thinking that the Rebbe would take care of bringing Moshiach. But once the Rebbe told us unequivocally, “I am giving it over to you—do everything you can to bring Moshiach,” there’s no more fooling ourselves, is there?

Sunday, January 25, 2009

"Seeing" G–dliness through feminine aid

For those who doubt the tremendous degree of respect that the Chassidic path (in addition to that of earlier rabbinic sources) holds for womenfolk, please read this:
My father-in-law, the [Previous] Rebbe, related the following episode:[1]

It once happened that as the Alter Rebbe was leaving his room, he heard his wife, the Rebbetzin, talking with several women, and saying about him, “mine says.”[2]

It is written in the holy books that a woman should not refer to her husband by name, out of respect.[3] This would hold true all the more concerning the Alter Rebbe, who was a Nasi [leader] of the Jewish people. Therefore his wife did not refer to him by name, but said “mine.”

The Alter Rebbe said—in a melody, as was his custom—“If I am yours with one Mitzvah, with how many Mitzvos am I Hashem’s?” He leaned on the doorway, and entered a state of deep, trancelike concentration.

When he emerged from his meditative state, he declared:

[It is written], “Go out and see, O daughters of Tzion, king Shlomo.”[4] Through the daughters of Tzion [i.e., Jewish women], one is able to “go out” of the limitation of one’s vessel, and “see” G–dliness (which is represented by “king Shlomo,” which alludes to “the King who possesses peace [i.e., Hashem]”[5]).

We can explain this by connecting it with the statement of my father-in-law, the [Previous] Rebbe, concerning his father, the Rebbe Rashab, that when the Rebbe Rashab witnessed a particular event, although others had witnessed it as well, he would explain its lesson in the service of Hashem.

The reason for this is that Chassidus teaches us to extract the inner aspect of everything, even something simple, and derive a lesson from it in one’s service of Hashem.

Thus, it is not surprising that one word that the Alter Rebbe heard from his wife, the Rebbetzin, led to the addition of new concepts in Chassidic philosophy, in Chassidic melodies, and in the service of Hashem.

Toras Menachem, Vol. 7, pp. 274-275.

[1] HaYom Yom 23 Shevat.
[2] A Yiddish idiom by which to refer to one’s family member.
[3] Cf. Darkei Chaim VeShalom, sec. 1063.
[4] Shir HaShirim 3:11.
[5] Shir HaShirim Rabba 1:1.
Comment: This story has to be the most powerful statement concerning the positive impact that a wife can have on her husband that I’ve seen.

The Talmud says (Yevamos 62b) that one’s wife brings her husband joy, blessing, goodness, Torah, protection from sin, and peace. These are all tremendously valuable things, of course.

However, the Alter Rebbe says in Tanya here that the core of all one’s divine service is to come to “see” G–dliness. I.e., this is at the core of everything else, necessary as all those other elements may be. And according to the above story, the ability to attain this is granted by one’s wife.

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The Rebbe Wants Real Chassidim, Not Yes-Men!

The Rebbe Wants Real 

Chassidim, Not Yes-Men!

Rabbi Y. Oliver

In the famous public address of 28th of Nissan, 5751, among other things, the Rebbe complained bitterly that the chassidim do not pray for Moshiach to come “mit an emes”—really and truly, but only “mipnei ha’tzivui”—because they were told to do so—i.e., because the Rebbe told them so. They don’t sincerely yearn for Moshiach, for if they would, he would have come long ago, the Rebbe said.

It’s not enough that the Rebbe wants Moshiach. He wants us to want Moshiach. Really and truly. Which requires hard, intensive work. It’s not enough to answer omein, to nod our heads, to repeat slogans, to be “yes-men,” but not to connect to the Rebbe’s words in our minds and hearts. That’s not what a chossid is. We have to mean it, to care, to be bothered, to be distressed. From the depth of our hearts.

And if, G–d forbid, we don’t feel this way, we need to recognize that something is sorely lacking in our bond, in our relationship, in our identity as chassidim. And that itself should bother us.

Then we’ll make it our business to figure out what Hashem is, what Ge’ulah is, what Moshiach is, until we want it because we want it. Because “the Shechinah (divine presence) is in exile.”[1] Because a Jew has a special soul that it is “literally a part of Hashem”[2] in exile. Because the spark of holiness, the divine vitality, in every object that exists is hidden, and thus in exile. 

And then we’ll truly feel the Rebbe’s pain at the suffering of the Jewish people in exile. And then we will be what chassidim, what Jews are supposed to be. And then Moshiach will surely come.

[1] Cf. Tikunei Zohar 22a, Shaar HaGilgulim ch. 2.
[2] Tanya, beg. ch. 2.

Thursday, January 22, 2009

Jumping into the mikveh

The Baal Shem Tov teaches that since everything that occurs is by Divine Providence, everything one observes holds a lesson in one’s avodas Hashem, one’s divine service. Therefore, an essential part of serving Hashem is making an effort to notice these messages from Above, and then put them into practice in one’s daily life. Since even apparently trivial events in life also occur by Divine Providence, a lesson can and should be derived from them too.

So, here’s a little episode from my life that may hold a lesson. Today the mikveh was very cold. The fact that outside it was 4 degrees below zero didn’t make it any easier. I started inching into the water, but ... couldn’t continue. Then I realized that there was only one way: to run in as fast as possible. So I did, and found to my pleasant surprise that it wasn’t so painful after all.

Sometimes one experiences difficulty in fulfilling a particular instruction or obligation of the Torah, for whatever reason. The solution to this may well be to avoid thinking, calculating, and preparing, for in reality these are forms of subconscious inner stalling that only serve to lead to further inaction. When one feels a lack of interest, a coldness, to a task that must be done today, the only way to overcome this inner resistance, at least in the short term, is—just do it. Break yourself. And after the fact one may well see that it wasn’t so painful after all.

Afterward, hopefully sooner rather than later, one can and should work at refining one’s personal character (especially with the help of a Mashpia, a spiritual guide) to the point that one feels totally comfortable with that particular instruction of Torah. Until then, however, one should not fall short in one’s action, for “the deed is the main thing” (Pirkei Avos 1:17).

This is the concept of kabolas ol malchus Shomayim, acceptance of the yoke of divine sovereignty. This means that Hashem is the King and we are His servants, and so we must obey Him even when we don’t understand, are not in the mood, or are not personally so inclined. Or worse. Because He said so.

The same holds true for the relationship of a Chossid and his Rebbe: The Chossid obeys his Rebbe regardless whether he understands or emotionally connects with the instructions he was given. Because the Chossid has accepted the Rebbe as adoneinu, “our master,” and thus the Chossid is his servant.

Afterward, hopefully sooner rather than later, the Chossid can and should refine himself (especially with the help of a Mashpia) to the point that he understands and feels why these directives are important, and carries them out with eagerness. But in the meantime, he obeys.

Wednesday, January 21, 2009


“Followers” are people whose lives revolve around satisfying the expectations of others. They mean well, and often sincerely desire to improve, yet they consistently fall, for they yield to peer pressure. Put differently, their identity depends upon their surroundings. Thus, if everyone else is doing something inappropriate, they will “follow the herd” and dismiss any inner compunctions about the appropriateness of their actions. Even if the external behavior they are following is not inherently objectionable, the very fact act of imitating the actions of others solely out of a desire to conform is a sign of a follower personality. Such a person is spiritually at risk, because when he changes company, or is otherwise tested, his actions will change as well.

The core of the problem is this person’s inner weakness. A snail has a shell, but no bone at all. It slithers around, makes a mess, and can be crushed in an instant. Similarly, some people dress and act religiously on the outside, but when their environment changes they fall, because they have no backbone.

Thus, doing the right thing out of a desire to conform is not kabbolas ol (acceptance of the yoke of divine sovereignty), because one’s intention is not to submit to Hashem. That’s not to say that such actions are completely worthless, for the action is still a proper action, and “action is the main thing” (Pirkei Avos 1:17).  Still, this action can’t be defined as service of Hashem in the true sense.

Rather, a Jew’s backbone is his kabbolas ol. He submits to Hashem as His servant, rather than to the wishes of mortals in his environment due to fear of social (or other) sanctions.

This principle is so important that it is written at the outset of the Shulchan Aruch (the Code of Jewish Law): “One should be bold like a leopard [in serving Hashem] not to be ashamed before the scoffers.”

Monday, January 19, 2009

If you work like in the laundromat ...

Reb Yisroel Jacobson relates:

Reb Gershon Henich Eichhorn was a Chossid of the Previous Rebbe. He was a talmid chochom (Torah scholar), and after moving to America he would deliver a regular class in Talmud in the Bnei Adass Yisroel Shul. However, the rest of the week he would do back-breaking work in a laundromat for a wage of $30 per week. When the Previous Rebbe arrived in America, Reb Gershon Henich was appointed as fundraiser for Tomchei Temimim (the Chabad Yeshivah) for which he went on to become very active. When Reb Itcheh Der Masmid asked the Previous Rebbe whether to accept Reb Gershon Henich into the Chabad office, the Previous Rebbe agreed with pleasure, and said, “If he will toil for the Chabad organization like he works in the laundromat, it will be beneficial for both sides.”

Zikaron Livnei Yisrael, p. 119.

Lesson: One should take the same energy that one uses to satisfy one’s material needs, and invest it in holiness. This is a way of assessing whether one is toiling sufficiently in spreading Torah and Chassidus.

Comment: This is really the same idea that the Previous Rebbe expresses in maamar of Basi Legani, which we learn in preparation for 10 Shevat, where he writes that one should take the Animal Soul’s natural passion for the physical and transform it, using it to serve Hashem.

Sunday, January 18, 2009

The Faithful Shepherd

The Faithful Shepherd

Rabbi Y. Oliver

This was the first letter that the Rebbe wrote after the Previous Rebbe passed away. Its relevance for chassidei Chabad after Gimmel Tammuz (especially in light of the principle of “he ruled concerning himself” discussed here) is self-evident.
The [Previous] Rebbe, my father-in-law, of blessed memory, writes in one of his letters concerning the Histalkus [passing] of his father [the Rebbe Rashab] that in the case of Tzaddikim, the protectors of the earth, even after their Histalkus, “Not only do they not part from their flock, but they plead before the footstool of the exalted Throne, and present themselves before the splendor of the lofty, upraised G–d, to protect over the nation of Yeshurun [i.e., the Jewish people].”

The same is also true of the [Previous] Rebbe, my father-in-law, of blessed memory.

However, from our perspective, we should maintain and further strengthen our
Hiskashrus and connection with him with increased vigor, by studying his Chassidic discourses, talks, and letters, and delving into the directives found in them, and the ones, that one personally received. In this way we will go “in the straight path that he showed us, in his paths, and we will walk in his ways forever and ever.”[2]

Igros Kodesh Admur HaRayatz, Vol. 1, p. 141.
[2] Tanya, Iggeres HaKodesh, chap. 27.

Igros Kodesh, Vol. 3, p. 558.
In my own words: The bond between Rebbe and chossid is very deep, and thus continues despite the Rebbe’s passing. Thus, just as the Tzaddik provided inspiration and guidance in the service of Hashem during his lifetime, so does he continue to do so after his passing. He also continues to plead before Hashem on behalf of his disciples and the Jewish people as a whole, and in a more sublime manner, as he has risen to a far higher state of being.

Thus, his disciples for their part must maintain and even intensify their connection to him by studying his writings and directives, especially those received personally, and deriving the appropriate lessons, and implementing them.

: Even after the Tzaddik’s passing, the Tzaddik maintains his connection with the chassidim. The chossid has to do his part to maintain the bond, and follow the path that the Tzaddik taught. Then the bond established is eternal.

Saturday, January 17, 2009

Global decoys

With the general prevalence of concern about world events, the sicha below is worth keeping in mind:

When we discuss the need to rectify the entire world and bring it to be “filled with the knowledge of G–d” (Yeshaya 11:9), it is necessary to repudiate a mistaken conception that the evil inclination is liable to claim:

“Even if you fall short in your personal behavior in a particular area (in business, and the like), this is only a sin of an individual. Moreover, you can repent afterward, and even if you don’t, of what significance is this in comparison with the lofty task of fixing the entire world?”

Such “logic” is nothing but an argument of the evil inclination, whose goal is to distract and confuse the person so that he will not occupy himself in the areas in which he can act—by “inventing” a superior mission for him, one that at the moment he cannot accomplish, such as convincing him that his task is to bring the entire world to perfection, even when as an individual he acts in the opposite manner.

The Torah says, “First adorn yourself, and then adorn others” (
Bava Metziah 107b). Indeed, there is a large world that you need to fix, a world far greater and more significant—both qualitatively and quantitatively—than any individual creation in it. Yet in order for each creation to succeed at fixing the world, he needs to start first and foremost with fixing himself.

Moreover, there is no contradiction between involvement in both areas simultaneously. In other words, at the same time that one strives to improve and fix one’s personal behavior, he strives to influence those around him, as far as he is able to influence, to act in the appropriate manner.

Hitva’aduyot 5744, Vol. 4, pp. 2171-2172.

In my own words: One of the dangers in following world events is that although we are not in a position to change them directly, we are liable to become carried away with staying informed, being distressed about the events, and expressing our opinions on them. We then neglect the areas in which we are truly able to exert influence. To state the obvious, the main thing is not to know what is going on, but to do something about it.

What we who are not government advisors or the like can do (other than vote and lobby ones congressman or the like, when applicable) is to increase in good deeds, and study and spread Yiddishkeit and Chassidus starting with ourselves, our families, our immediate circle of friends and acquaintances, and our larger communities. All Hashem asks of each person is to do his or her individual part to exert a positive impact on the world and thereby positively affect the global situation to the extent that he or she is able.

The temptation to spend extensive amount of time reading about all the world
s problems is yet another cunning ploy of the evil inclination, “a master at his craft” (Shabbos 105b), to distract us from what we should really be doing.

What we can do may not be earth-shattering and glamorous, but it’s what truly counts.

Thursday, January 15, 2009

The lesson from a Jewish king

On 12th of Teves 5747, the Rebbe encouraged the chassidim to spend a month preparing for Yud Shevat, and one of the things that he encouraged was strengthening the observance of the practice to appoint a personal Rav, a spiritual mentor. In this light I thought it apropos to post the sicha I have translated below:
There is a known question concerning the Mitzvah to appoint a king—“You shall surely appoint a king over yourself”[1]:
When the Jewish people asked the prophet Shmuel, “give us a king,”[2] he was very displeased. Hashem also said, “they have despised Me.”[3] But was this not a Mitzvah that Hashem had commanded the Jewish people? This is especially so according to the statement of our Sages, “The Jewish people were given three Mitzvos when they entered the [Holy] Land: to appoint a king for themselves ... ” Thus, this is a very lofty Mitzvah, and one of the Mitzvos dependent upon living in the [Holy] Land.
On the other hand, if their demand for a king at that time was undesirable, why did Hashem then instruct the prophet Shmuel to concede to the Jewish people and appoint a king over them?
Chassidus explains that there are two reasons for appointing a king, one superior to the other:
1) A simple reason: as the Mishnah puts it, “were it not for the fear of the government, a man would swallow his fellow alive.”[4] The king must guide the citizens of the country and bring them to behave properly.
Even when one’s intellect understands that one should behave properly, that is insufficient, because “the eye sees, the heart desires ... ”[5] Thus, fear of the king is vital, for it brings people to behave ethically.
2) When the minds rules over the heart constantly, it is unnecessary to appoint a king for the above purpose. However, there are certain areas where the people do not have insight to understand how to behave. Only the king, whose greatness is such that “from his shoulders and above, he is higher than all the people,”[6] understands them, and also issues edicts concerning how one should act, and the citizens of his country obey, because such was the king’s decree.
This is the inner, deeper purpose of appointing a king over the Jewish people. Their master and king is G-d, and the human king one appoints is the intermediary who reveals Hashem’s sovereignty to the Jewish people.
The Jewish people are believers by nature. They understand and feel that their life stems from G-d. This ought to call forth a sense of self-nullification to G-d. But when they are in a state where this sense of self-nullification is lacking, they need a person of flesh and blood to fear. This brings them to fear and nullify themselves before the King of all kings, the Holy One, blessed be He.
However, when the Jewish people behave properly, and reach this level of self-nullification on their own, then appointing a king has a higher purpose: There are certain levels of G-dliness that the Jewish people cannot reach on their own, because these levels are beyond their comprehension. The king, however, who is so great that he understands these levels, draws these levels down to the Jewish people. This also brings the Jewish people to a higher level of fear and self-nullification, one that transcends their comprehension.
This answers the above questions:
Shmuel wanted the Jewish people to have reached a [basic] level of nullification to G-dliness on their own, without needing a king. The king’s function would then be to bring them to a higher level of self-nullification and fear.[7] However, the Jewish people asked for “a king to judge us like all the nations,”[8] i.e., one to ensure that “a man [not] swallow his fellow alive.” This indicated that they were lacking the level of fear of Heaven that they ought to have reached on their own. Therefore G-d said that “they have despised Me”—they are lacking fear of Heaven.
However, G-d’s concession in ordering them to appoint a king nonetheless is logical: If a Jew is lacking fear of Heaven for whatever reason, then although he ought to reach this level of self-nullification on his own, without the influence of a king, we cannot wait and allow him to be a Jew without the yoke of Heaven[9] until then.
He must immediately appoint a king for himself, who will ensure that he adheres to this basic level. Then, with time, he will reach this level of self-nullification on his own [i.e., the lower level], until the king will also bring him to the spiritual levels of the second type described above.
We should derive a lesson from everything in our service of Hashem: Although during the age of exile we do not have a king, our Sages say, “Who are the kings? The rabbis.”[10] Just as the Mitzvah to appoint a king exists, so must a Jew follow the command of “the kings, the sages,” to “make for yourself a Rav.”[11]
Concerning this we can learn a lesson from the above concept: Certain people imagine that when it comes to lowly matters, they can understand and decide on their own; thus, they need not ask a Rav about such a thing.
However, the Mishnah says to “make for yourself a Rav.” This means that every Jew must have a Rav. They imagine that it was only intended [that one consult about] lofty matters; however, when it comes to simple things he believes in himself—he doesn’t need the influence of a Rav. This he can accomplish on his own.
He thinks that the fact that time goes by and he remains on the same lowly level is not sufficient reason for him to go to a Rav. He will wait “until a spirit awakens him from Above,” until he becomes inspired with proper fear and rectifies everything that he ought to rectify—on his own.
This is the lesson we can derive from appointing a king in the spiritual sense nowadays: It is true that for Jews the main purpose and function of a king is to bring them to a higher spiritual level. However, when one is in a state of “they have despised Me,” G-d forbid, or one has reason to be concerned that this is so, one must immediately use fear of the king for this.
Some say that they cannot find a Rav. They should know that this is a scheme and enticement of the [evil] inclination, because “the Jewish people have not been widowed,” and it is not possible that no Jew exists with greater love of G-d and fear of G-d than him, enabling that person to act as his Rav.
However, for this he must exert effort and search, until he finds a Rav. (This is alluded to in the expression “make for yourself a Rav”: the word “make”[12] could also mean force, as in the expression, “we force people to give charity.”[13]) For one cannot rely upon oneself, as our Sages say, “do not believe in yourself”[14]—one must have a Rav.
The Rav will teach him the sections of the Torah publicly read by the king at the Hakhel gatherings: “Shema” and “V’hoyo im shomoyo.”[15] First he will teach him the Shema, which represents accepting the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven, and then “V’hoyo im shomoyo ... ve’osafto degonecho” [“If you listen [to Hashem] ... you will gather your grain]—he will explain to him thoroughly how even “gather[ing] your grain” [i.e., material prosperity] depends upon “If you listen.”
Once the Rav has inspired him to the lower level of self-nullification and acceptance of the yoke [of Heaven], he will then draw down to him the higher level—“higher fear.”
All the above has a special connection with the age of “the footsteps of the Moshiach,”[16] the time immediately before the coming of Moshiach, for he represents both aspects: he will be a teacher, and teach everyone, even the Avos and Moshe Rabeinu, and he will be a king—“the King Moshiach.”
Simchas Beis HaSho’eivah, year of Hakhel 5713,
Printed in Likkutei Sichos, Vol. 24, pp. 104-107.
[1] Devorim 17:15.
[2] I Shmuel 8:6.
[3] ibid. 8:7.
[4] Pirkei Avos 3:2.
[5] Bamidbar 16:39.
[6] I Shmuel 9:2.
[7] “Yirah ila’ah”—“higher fear.”
[8] I Shmuel 8:5.
[9] See Tanya ch. 41: “As explained in the Zohar (Parshat Behar): ‘Just like the ox on which one first places a yoke in order to make it useful to the world ... so too must a human being first of all submit to the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven ... and only then engage in divine service; and if this [submission] is not found in him, holiness cannot rest within him ... ’”
[10] See Gittin end chap. 5.
[11] Pirkei Avos 1:6.
[12] In Hebrew, “asei.”
[13] In Hebrew, “me’asin al ha’tzedoko.”
[14] Avos 2:4.
[15] Sotah 41a.
[16] cf. Bereishis Rabba 42:4.